GATE AND PSU’s STUDY MATERIAL
ACE ENGINEERING ACADEMY
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- SUBJECT : STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – THEORY WITH WORKED OUT EXAMPLES SELF AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE QUESTIONS
- AUTHOR : SUBJECT EXPERTS OF ACE ENGINEERING ACADEMY – HYDERABAD
- PUBLISHERS : ACE ENGINEERING PUBLISHERS
- IDEAL FOR : GATE AND PSU’s – CIVIL ENGINEERING STREAM
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BRIEF INTRO TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ACE GATE MATERIAL
Structure: A structure refers to a system of connected parts used to support a load. When any elastic body is subjected to a system deformation takes place and the resistance is setup against the deformation, then the elastic body is known as “Structure”.
Structure Mechanism: If no resistance is set up in the body against the deformation, it is known as an unstable structure or “Mechanism’
Classification of Structures: Skeletal structures: Structures which can be idealized to a series of straight or curved lines. Ex Roof trusses, building frames Surface Structures: Structures which can be idealized to plane or curved surfaces Ex: Slabs and shells. Solid Structures. Structures which can neither be idealized to a skeleton nor to a plane or curved surface. Ex: Massive foundation.
Classification of skeletal structures: (a) Based on type of joint: Pin jointed frames: Members, are connected by means of pin joints. These frames support the loads by developing only axial forces, if the external loads act at the joints and members are straight
Rigid jointed frames : Assumptions: The joints of rigid jointed frames are assumed to be rigid so that the angles between the members meeting at a joint remain unchanged. These frames resist external forces by developing bending moments, shear forces, axial forces and twisting moments in the members of the frame.
Based on Dimensions: Plane frames: All members of the plane frame as well as the external loads are assumed to be in one plane Further Classification: Pin jointed plane frame: Members carry only axial forces Rigid i jointed plane frame: Members are subjected to axial forces, shear forces and bending moments.
Important Note: loaded in its own plane, cross section of member is subjected to three internal forces one axial force, one shear force and one bending moment) If loading is away from the plane torsional moments also pace frame: All members do not lie in one plane. Very often, it is also a combination of series of frames.
Further classification: Pin jointed space frames: Members are subjected to axial forces only Rigid jointed space frame: Members are subjected to axial forces, shear forces, bending moments and twisting moments.
Statically determinate structure: Structure that can be analysed with the help of equations of static equilibrium alone. It undergoes finite deformation before the conditions of equilibrium are satisfied ‘v’ Example: A cantilever beam, simply supported beam A three hinged arch, A suspension cable.
Statically indeterminate structure: Any structure whose reaction components or internal stresses can not be established by using the equations of static equilibrium alone. The number of unknown forces is greater than the number of equilibrium equations. For complete analysis additional equations based on conditions of compatibility or consistent displacements shall be used.
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